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2018.03.11托福机经

来源:新航道 发布日期:2018-03-15 09:03

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新航道2018年3月11号托福考试机经!2018年3月11号托福考试机经为大家整理出来了,希望大家可考出好成绩哦!

Passage 1

Topic

Honeybee communication (新题)

Content Review

第一段讲人们根据蜜蜂寻找食物的现象,推测蜜蜂肯能是通过身体活动传递信息。

第二、三、四段讲研究者设置实验对蜜蜂进行观察,发现蜜蜂在发现食物后会做出圆圈形的舞动传递信息,即round dance告诉同伴。后来研究者调整实验,把食物源头放到更远的地方,并标记用涂料标记一些蜜蜂并观察它们的行为,发现蜜蜂会做出waggle dance来传递食物信息。第五段讲到蜜蜂传递信息的动作方向与食物摆放的位置和当时太阳的位置有关,并存在一定规律。第段总结蜜蜂在距离食物范围80到100米距离时,会用round dance传递信息,但当距离食物范围超过100米时,它们会用waggle dance的方式传递信息。第七段总结蜜蜂除了用跳舞传递信息,还会通过声音来交流。

 

suspected =thought it likely 

function = purpose

progressively = increasingly 

subsequent = later 

vigorously = energetically

 

 

 

 

Passage 2

Topic

German industrialization in 19th century (新题)

Content Review

   段总的概括讲到德国19世纪铁路的发展推动了煤、铁矿及其他行业的发展。第二段具体讲到铁路对其他行业的影响,铁路需要铁矿及煤,但铁路发展又会促记煤矿以及机械、工程等其他行业的发展。并给出了有相似原理的例子,如化学行业的发展可以促记染料及纺织业的发展。第3段梳理了铁路发展对于德国各个方面的促记,有降低运输成本,提供劳动力更多的就业机会,让劳动力流动更灵活,促进国家基础建设的发展。

 

 

节选:

The leading role played by the railways is an example of what economic historians call backward linkage—the stimulus a new industry gives to the producers of raw materials and machinery used by the new industry. The chemical industry provides an example of the same thing: the 1860s saw the founding of a number of major chemical firms, which received a boost from the demand for dyestuffs and similar treatments required by a more sophisticated textile industry. Indeed, growing mechanization across the board stimulated the metallurgical and engineering sectors, deepening German industrialization now increasingly led to the production of machines to make machines. 

 

 

founding = establishment 

dwellings = homes

essential to = necessary for 

mature = fully developed

 

 

 

 

Passage 3

Topic

the origin of food production (新题)

Content Review

段讲到冰川时代,动物迁移,人类被迫做出选择。有的人也选择迁移,有的人选择留下,从而有了后来的人类文明。第二段具体讲到土耳其等地区环境温暖潮湿,适合野生谷物生长,所以有的人选择留下来,通过野生谷物维持生活。并逐渐建立了半永久甚至是永久居住地。第三段讲到人口梳理不断增长,使得人们不得不开始进行种植,从而满足更多的食物需求。第四段讲到食物储存方式的进步。人类开始通过挖地坑埋藏食物去应当食物短缺的季节,无意间发现了储存的食物会发芽生长,可以用作种子。第五段讲到食物储存方法对农业的影响,人们不仅可以储存食物,也开始能够培育种子,并且更多的食物储存能够让人们饲养家畜。

undoubtedly = certainly

accomplished = achieved

intermediate = in-between

reinforce = strengthen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passage 4

Topic

The Origin of  Coral Reefs 全文重复20140621

 

Content Review

Coral reefs are natural structures formed from deposits of the calcium carbonate secretions of coral, a marine animal that lives in colonies. In general, coral reefs are grouped into one of three categories, atolls, barrier reefs, and fringing reefs. Atolls are usually easily distinguished because they are modified horseshoe-shaped reefs that rise out of very deep water far from land and enclose a lagoon (a body of certain water surrounded by a coral reef). With few exceptions, atolls are found only in the Indo-Pacific area. Barrier reefs and fringing reefs, on the other hand, tend to grade into each other and are not readily separable. Some scientists would prefer to group them into a single category. Both types occur adjacent to a landmass, with a barrier reef being separated from the landmass by a greater distance and deeper water channel than the fringing reef. Fringing reefs and barrier reefs are common throughout the coral reef zones in all oceans.

Different types of reefs and reefs in different oceans may have diverse origins and histories. The greatest interest in the origin of reefs has centered on atolls. For many years, humans speculated as to how such reefs could develop in such deep water, miles from the nearest emergent land. This interest was heightened when it was discovered that reef corals cold not live deeper than 50-70 meters. This led to the development of several theories concerning the origin of atolls. Only one need be discussed here, the X grow on the shores of newly formed volcanic islands that have pushed to the surface from deep water. These islands often begin to subside, and if the subsidence is not too fast, reef growth will keep up with the subsidence. The reef growth will then form a barrier reef and, ultimately, an atoll as the island disappears beneath the sea. When the island has disappeared, corals continue to grow on the outside and keep the reef at the surface. On the inside, where the island used to be, quiet water conditions and high sedimentation prevail. These conditions prevent continued vigorous coral growth, hence, a lagoon develops. This theory links all three reef types into evolutionary sequence, but is not an explanation for all fringing and barrier reef types.

Since the current surface features of atolls give no evidence of a volcanic base, in the years after the development of Darwin’s theory other explanations were offered, and the whole concept of the origin of atolls became embroiled in the controversy over the origin of coral reefs. If Darwin’s theory was correct, it must be assumed that drilling down through the current atoll reefs would yield layer after layer of reef limestone until, finally, volcanic rock would be encountered. The ability to drill to the base of atoll reefs and resolved the problem had to wait until the mid-twentieth century in 1953. Ladd and other geologists reported borings at Eriwetok atoll in the Marshall Islands that penetrated 1,283meters of reef limestone and then hit volcanic rock. This was the evidence that Darwin’s theory was substantially correct. The correctness of this theory has been strengthened by the discovery of flat-topped mountains or guyots that, at present, have their tops many hundreds or thousands of meters below the ocean surface, but have on their surface the remains of shallow water corals. Evidently, these mountains sank too fast for reef growth to keep above the ocean surface.

Although the subsidence theory links all three reef types in a successional sequence, not all barrier reefs and fringing reefs can be explained by this mechanism. Indeed, the reasons barrier and fringing reef types occur around continental margins and high non-volcanic islands are simply that these areas offer suitable environmental conditions for the growth of reefs and a suitable substrate (surface) on which to begin growth. The extensive reefs around the Indonesian Islands, the Philippines, New Guinea, Fiji and most of the Caribbean Islands are there because a suitable substrate in shallow water existed on which they could initiate growth. In none of these areas are large land areas subsiding, not will these reefs ultimately become atolls.

 

 heightened = increased

prevail = dominate

substantially = largely

initiate = begin

 

 

 

 

Passage 5

Topic

a debate on Dinosaur.

Content Review

讲恐龙是不是热血动物。一开始说冷血,但热血这个说法不对,应该说内热、外热动物。然后有一个教授说恐龙是内热动物,首先因为恐龙运动量大,外热提高不了这么多能量,第二因为恐龙的形态,可以站起来,外热的站不起来。最后有人反驳,说那种四肢在身体两侧(站不起来的)也有内热的,比如海豚。

 

 

Passage 6

Topic

地球气体

Content Review

地球上的原始细菌消耗甲烷和二氧化碳产生大量氧气,臭氧层保护生命不受紫外线伤害,地球温度不再那么高了。

 

 

 

Passage 7

Topic

工业化对artisan的影响

Content Review

    第一因为生产设备因为需求增大,价格上升;第二当地原材料被抢光;第三手工业主甚至只能求助bank,但市场争不过大公司,小市场客人被大市场带走,大公司以很低的价格提供很垃圾的产品。

 

 

Passage 8

Topic

两个科学家关于生物进化的理论

Content Review

    拉马克和达尔文两个科学家观点,一个是动物适应环境然后传给后代,二突变个体适应环境,然后活下来,例子一支持第一个观点,moth变黑适应被污染的树,然后基因分析也支持第一个观点,因为没变,第二个例子反驳,一种植物移植到没有刺激的环境仍然显示改变后的特点,支持第二个,不能解释第三个例子,老鼠对橘子味感到害怕,对不舒服的味道没反应,科学家之后发现有一种特殊基因片段,在年幼时产生,长大有丝分裂后消失。

 

Passage 9

Topic

人类如何开始grain plants

Content Review

    climate change,一些人去了北边狩猎,一些人留下来种植,climate帮助作物生长,储藏技术产生,同时在储藏室旁边,人们发现了种子收集技术,这个技术使即使当年收成不好,也可以保证食物。

 

 

 

 

Passage 10

Topic

大型动物灭绝

Content Review

    各个地方灭绝的情况还不一样,科学家提出了两种说法,一是climate,一是认为hunt。花了两三段反驳climate。1是动物并不是移去更温暖的地方,而是移去稍微不那么暖和地方2是讲之前也有类似climate变化,但没有灭绝。后面反驳hunt,hunt里面有对比,和另一个地方有人类,但没有灭绝是因为动物已经适应,而这边没有适应,所以灭绝。反驳有三点,1.人类居住是很少人聚集,不足以杀掉动物2.??3.讲遗留下来的东西并没有很多人hunt的踪迹,还没有动物被捕杀的痕迹。最后一段综述。

 

 

 

 

Passage 11

Topic

Tide pool 的各种特点

Content Review

    暂无

 

 

Listening

Conversation 1

Topic

咨询类

Content

一个女生和cafeteria工作人员提建议,工作人员先夸了这个女生一番,女生表示我来给你个意见,现在的学生关心的是食物从来哪的,营养如何管理员说以前学生只关心的how much,女生表示是一种另类的how much,管理员说学生可以在网站上查啊,女生:你们网站字太小,需要个app,我同学可以做,管理员。

 

Conversation 2

Topic

实验方面问题

Content

    学生和老师说他伙伴手小,两人测量标准不一样,下周下雨,他怕是完成不了老师的生态project,老师说下雨是会难一点,许多学生都搞错了,有两个重点你要抓住一个是vegetable,一个是water什么什么。

 

Conversation 3

Topic

课堂问题

Content

    学生读了一篇教授要求的资料,关于动物的睡眠的。学生说我读了资料了,觉得很有意思。但是,这些资料研究的都是在实验室里的动物的睡眠情况,这不会有问题吗?教授说是的,当然了。这些研究可能不那么authentic。但是研究技术所限啊,研究睡眠需要使用大型仪器,没法带到野外去。学生补充,而且在野外也很难追踪动物。睡眠太有意思了,我们每天都经历 。但却知之甚少。教授回应也不能完全这么说。至少我们知道睡眠时大脑的活动情况,以及缺少睡眠会带来的问题。但我们还不清楚睡眠的目的。学生表示真希望我将来也能研究睡眠。教授说何必等将来,现在学校里就有这样的机会啊。学校里一直有这些项目,只是校方宣传太少。这些项目中,你可以跟老师一起研究。如果你对我的研究领域感兴趣,你可以跟我一起研究。我还有个同事在Arizona,他也研究动物睡眠。学生说我准备去申请看看。

 

 

Lecture 1

Topic

动物学

Content

讲乐器的。那个教授先问,诶,你们知不知道为什么有的乐器演奏的音乐好听,但是有的乐器又不好听,然后好像有学生回答问题说了一大堆。然后教授说,人们总是倾向于重视演奏者的技巧而忽视乐器本身。他说,这样吧,你们回想一下你们上一次听演奏是什么时候,现在回想印象最深的是什么。(有题,问为什么教授这样问学生 答案是他想prove人们总是忽略乐器本身的观点)一个女生起来说,她上一次听演奏是听一个小提琴演奏,她觉得特别好听,她印象最深的就是那个player,觉得他特别skilled,教授说得意地说看吧,果然是这样。然后教授就开始说从前在意大利(貌似是意大利)有一群做小提琴的,他们做的小提琴特别好,有一个特别的名字,当时屏幕上有显示,是cera什么什么。为什么他们的琴好呢,并不是因为那些技师手艺好,modern的技师手艺也一样好(有题)是因为他们用的木头很特别。然后他开始说树列,(有题 问这里为什么说到树的生长)长得时候是先快后慢。先长得木头比较快,所以木质比较散,这样的木头做琴就不好,而后来长得慢,所以比较dense,做琴就比较好。

 

Lecture 2

Topic

生物类

Content

有一种细菌能活在极地超冷的地方,没有氧、没有太阳,靠的是salfide?(听力有salfate、salfide、salfite反正是三种,我已经记混了相互关系)。然后说salfate的数量是固定的,为什么细菌还一直活着?是因为有个东西能和铁反应再合成salfate。又因为铁来自水里的石头,所以有很多,能一直合成salfide,所以细菌一直能活着。然后老师说这种one-cell的细菌真神奇!

 

Lecture 3

Topic

生物类

Content

昆虫的飞行和飞机之间的联系。昆虫的飞行模式影响了人们制造飞机。一开始的时候人们都以为bubble bee 不能飞,但是事实是虽然它的身体很大但是依然能够飞行。因此人们就模仿它做了一个模型飞机,但是这个模型飞机不能飞,因为它不能够一直停留在空中。后来通过研究人们发现每种昆虫有自己不同的飞行方式。听力还提到让机器人开飞机,但是空中存在着各种突发情况因此这个设想很难实现。

 

 

Lecture 4

Topic

考古类

Content

莎士比亚的作品到底是不是他自己写的?老师先讲不是他自己写的,也许是有人用莎士比亚的笔名发表了文章,说了这两个证据。1)他没有受过正式教育,连elementary school都没有毕业,很小就辍学。他家人也几乎都不识字。有学生说那就去看看records in theater,然后去看了发现文件是incomplete。2)早期剧院的一些证据都没有直接表明莎士比亚是剧作家(有一些receipt)3)当地报纸也没有记载过这些东西(又可能是因为报纸incomplete)。另一个观点:是他自己写的。1)他死后,和他一起工作过的两个演员写了回忆录,出版了一些剧本,还写道他生前没看到出版真是遗憾。如果作者不是莎士比亚,就没必要这么写。2)他死后,当地给他建了一座雕塑。教授说如果莎士比亚没有这么有才,为什么他会这么受欢迎,其实我们也不能确定这件事是不是真的。

 

 


Speaking

Task 1

Topic

which do you think about smart phones to students? Here are three benefits of smart phones to students, which do you think is good to students?

1. Taking photos

2. Listening to music

3. Recording courses

 

Task 2

Topic

Some parents think they should protect students from making mistakes. Some think they should let them make mistakes. What do you think?

 

Task 3

Reading

学校打算从暑期动工在北校区(North Campus)建立火车站通往城市。

1. 因为暑期学生都不在校园内生活,不会受到噪音的影响。

2. 火车站离学校很远要30分钟。

Listening

反对

1. 暑期有课有考试,所以仍然后很多学生住在校内,噪音会干扰他们学习。

2. 学校附近公交站,虽然慢但是便宜。

 

Task 4

Definition

Pseudoscience(伪科学):很多商家会利用伪科学进行宣传, 欺骗消费者。

Examples

Brian games:有些公司的广告里会说这些游戏会让人变聪明,还说是专家已经做出了验证,所以很多人会购买这个游戏。但是一群研究人员发现这些游戏设计并不严谨,并不能得出什么结论,所以人们花了冤枉钱。

 

 

Task 5

Problem

女孩周末有篮球的半决赛却恰逢与朋友一年一度的旅行相冲突。

Solutions

1. 重新安排旅行。

优点 女孩可以如期参加篮球队的半决赛。

缺点 取消酒店的预订,需要损失一部分钱。

2. 建议朋友自己去这次纽约之行,女孩本人就不参与了。

优点: 明年还可以约着去旅行。

缺点: 心情会很后悔,因为朋友们目前不在一个大学就读,时间是好不容易凑在一起的。

 

Task 6

Topic

人类活动对动物进化的影响

Content

1. 动物身体变小,因为人类偏向猎捕大体积动物作为食物。比如鱼,当人们把大鱼捞走,小鱼能够留下来并且把这样的基因传递给下一代。

2. 大脑变大,因为动物要适应不断变化的环境,聪明的会活下来。比如老鼠,学会了在城市里生活和寻找食物,聪明的会活下来并把基因传给下一代。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Writing

 

Task 1

Topic

大脑体积缩小的原因 重复2014.5.17日考题

Reading

1. The first theory is the climate change. The temperature is colder, so the human body becomes smaller, and the brain size decrease.

2. The second theory is the agriculture. People ate grain in the past which has been protein and vitamin, but the increase of brain size needs protein and vitamin, so the brain is small.

3. The third theory is the decrease of music mass. The part of the brain that control muscle activities are smaller.

Listening

1. The temperature goes up and down for several times, but the size of brain did not increase, even a little increase.

2. Lifestyle appears in different times. There was no such trend in Australia and South Africa until recently. Yet the decline of human brain occurs at the same time around the world. So this assumption cannot be true.

3. The muscle mass only reduced a little, but brain size decreased a lot. The loss of this region is too small compared with the overall loss of the brain size. If it has any influence, it will not be the main contribution.

 

Task 2

Topic

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

People would meet many problems in their daily life and they would solve them by themselves or from the help of their families; the help from the government is not necessary.

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