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雅思大作文让步段如何写作高分作文?

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2018-04-25 10:04

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大作文应该如何写才能写作高分作文呢?雅思大作文让步段如何写作高分作文?接触过雅思大作文的同学都应该知道,大作文主要考察”议论文”和“说明文”两种类型。其中,议论文大概占80% 的比例,包含“观点类”和“论述类”两种类型。

无论是哪一种议论文,评分标准的前两项TA(任务完成度)和CC(衔接与连贯)都强调论证的重要性,而如何论证又恰巧是很多中国考生最头疼的地方。尤其是近年来,雅思大作文涉及的话题越来越抽象,越来越难思考观点,以往一篇文章考生能想到三至四个观点,而现在能想到两到三个观点就已经绞尽脑汁了。

那么如何在观点“缺货”的情况下,对文章的中心论点展开充分论证呢?本文将给大家介绍一种新的论证方法——让步的论证方法。

什么是让步段(“退一步海阔天空”)

说起“让步“二字,大家应该不陌生,因为英语的语法知识体系里就有让步状语从句。在雅思大作文中,让步就是先退一步承认自己不同意的事实或者观点,再对其进行反驳。

举个例子,大家都或多或少有过面试的经历,我们可以类比一下。通常在面试结束后,HR如果要拒绝录用我们,他会在拒绝前先适当肯定一下我们在某些方面的闪光点,这就是让步。当然,肯定完之后,HR还是会直奔主题,给我们挑刺,无情地拒绝我们。

在主体段写作过程中,将让步的内容扩展成一个段落,就是我们所说的让步段。

让步段的实战意义(“让你的论证无懈可击”)

让步段是一种实用性很强的写作段落,在论证过程中有着广泛的实战意义。首先,让步段通常出现在一边倒的“五段式”作文中。如上文所述,很多学生都将大部分精力集中在苦思冥想三个支持性观点和细节上, 而结果是往往想出第二个观点就语竭词穷了,但若换个思路,把最后一个主体段(全文第四段)写成让步段,能帮助我们很好地扩充文章的字数,满足写作要求。此外, 让步段写作还可以照顾到反方观点,避免给读者留下偏执走极端的印象,使论证更加全面客观,使整篇文章的论述更具有说服力。

让步段到底怎么写(“欲抑先扬、人格分裂”)

根据以上论述,我们知道了让步段的概念和意义。下面我们就来介绍让步段如何写作。典型的写作方式是”三步走”原则: 立反(承认反方观点的合理性)+论反(给出反方论据)+驳反(反驳反方观点)。

下文结合实例,我们来分析如何写出一个具有说服力的让步段。

01“三步走”原则:让步=立反+论反+驳反

02常用词汇句式:

立反

1. As is granted, ...

2. Opponents would argue that...

3. Although/ In spite of the fact that ..., people tend to believe that ...

4. It is undeniable that ...

论反

For example/ instance,...

This is because ...

驳反

However,...

03案例分析

Example 1:

Some people think that it is more important to plant more   trees in open areas such as  towns and cities than build more housing. To what extent do agree or disagree?

让步段: (全文的立场: 种树比建房好)

立反:In spite of the importance of planting trees in towns and cities, the construction of houses might be more significant in some cases.

论反:This is because in certain regions where housing shortage is rather severe, the priority of governments would be building houses rather than planting trees.

驳反:However, this kind of shortage has already been alleviated in numerous areas, so planting trees deserves more consideration.

通过上面这道题让步段的写作,大家不难看出,“立反”和“论反”这两句的写作其实比较好找到突破口,关键是“驳反”这一句比较难寻切入点,这也被很多同学经常抱怨: 前一步刚给出理由来支持一个观点,后一步就要推倒这个观点,难道是要我“人格分裂”吗?没错,是的!为了解决这个疑惑,以下就为大家介绍两种“人格分裂”即“驳反”的方法。

“驳反”法一:解决问题--说明问题能被克服,最好简单提出解决方法

Example 2:  

In many countries, traditional foods are replacedby international fast foods. This is having a negative effect on families and societies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

让步段:(全文的立场:快餐食品对人们有利)

立反:In spite of the two advantages mentioned above, there is an evident disadvantage of fast food.

论反: The individuals who consume fast food constantly tend to become overweight, getting a number of diseases.

驳反: However, this risk could be avoided to a large extent if people have fast food properly and do exercise regularly. (解决问题)

“驳反”法二:针锋相对--直接指出反方的缺陷

Example 3:

Some people believe that living in big cities is bad for health.

Do you agree or disagree?  

让步段:(全文的立场:住在城市对健康有害)

立反: Although living in urban areas is detrimental to individuals’ physical and mental health, there are also benefits of urban life.

论反: For instance, people might  benefit from the better health care  service provided in metropolises.

驳反: However, this service may never completely cope with the health problems of citizens living in big cities. (针锋相对)

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